Rice, L. (1984). A study of learning modality elements of the Oklahoma Association of Youth Services members (Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 1984). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45(09A), 2811.
The purpose of the study was to measure the learning styles of the Oklahoma Association of Youth Services Members. The population sample consisted of 40 members, 25 female and 15 males. The instruments used in this study were the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test II (MMPALT II) and the Perceptual Modality Preference Survey (PMPS). The tests were conducted between October, 1983 and January, 1984. Answers to four questions were sought in this study: What are the preferred learning styles of this population? Is there a correlation between the results of MMPALT II and PMPS? Are there significant differences between subgroups by age, education, marital status and smoking? Scores, ranks, and means were computed for each style on each instrument. Analysis of variance and the t test were used to test significant differences. Correlation coefficients were also computed to show significant differences between the two instruments.
A study of the scores compiled on the log sheet for the MMPALT II and PMPS by subjects revealed that there were no two subjects with identical scores or ranks. The preferred learning style element was visual; print and interactive were second and third, respectively. There were no meaningful correlations between the two instruments. There were no significant differences between males and females on the MMPALT II. However significant differences appeared on the PMPS scores by sex in the haptic element. There were significant differences on both instruments by marital status. The olfactory element on the MMPALT II scores showed a significant difference. The PMPS scores showed a significant difference in the haptic element. There were significant differences on the PMPS scores by smokers, both the haptic element and the olfactory element showed a significant difference in the subgroup of smoking. No significant differences appeared in the four subgroups for the seven learning style elements on either the MMPALT II or the PMPS.