Endres, G. M. (2000). The relationship between perceptual modalities, analogical reasoning, age, and gender as measured by the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test and the Miller Analogies Test (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2000). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(01A), 51.
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between perceptual modalities, analogical reasoning, age, and gender as measured by the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test III (MMPALT III) and the Miller Analogies Test (MAT). No prior research related to perceptual modalities, analogy making, age, and gender existed. Seventy participants were included in the study with half being 50 years of age and over and half being between 18-30 years of age. Forty of the participants were female and 30 were male with all participants from the Central Florida area. The first of three research questions focused on the relationship between four of the MMPALT III subtests and the MAT. Using multiple regression analysis, no significant relationship was found between these two tests indicating that analogical reasoning was not a factor in the scoring of the MMPALT III. Age, gender, and their relationship to the MAT were addressed in the second research question. Gender was not significantly related to the MAT; however, age was significant at the .05 alpha level and was the primary contributor to the multiple regression results. The final research question investigated the relationship of age, gender, and the four MMPALT III subtests to the MAT. Results suggested that of the six predictor variables included in the analysis, gender, age, and the MMPALT III Aural subtest were the primary contributors to the multiple regression results. Additional findings were that the 18–30 year old group tended to have higher mean scores on the Print, Visual, and Aural MMPALT III subtests than the 50 years and older group. However, the over 50 years group obtained a higher mean score on the MAT. The major implication for instruction is that learning for the over 50 year olds via print, visual, or aural modalities may take longer. However, the over 50 years of age learners may be able to use analogical reasoning skills better than the 18-30 years of age group. Additional research could focus on the aging process and changes in perceptual modalities, a further investigation of the components of learning, the relationship between the MMPALT III subtests, or the relationship of the Interactive subtest to age.